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Glossary of writing terms

myWriterTools comes with an extensive glossary of writing, publishing and editing terms. You access the glossary from the myWriterTools menu and can search the glossary list for any word. The glossary is reproduced below. Click on the letter at the top to go directly to that section.

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Glossary of writing, publishing and editing terms


A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X 
A---
 

ascender

upper part of letters (b,d,f,h,I,j,k,l,t) that extends above the x-height

 

AA

author's alteration that indicates a change made by the author

 

abbreviation

a short version of a longer word or phrase, such as chap. for chapter

 

About the Author

information in a book or proposal about the author; normally written in the 3rd person

 

abstract

a brief synopsis of a paper or similar work

 

accent

symbols over or next to letters that indicate pronunciation or stress; very common with foreign letters such as é

 

acronyms

a term made from the first letter of each word in a phrase, such as NATO for North Atlantic Treaty Organization

 

active voice

writing where the subject of the sentence is carrying out the action, such as 'He threw the ball.'

 

adjective

a word modifying a noun or pronoun, either before the word, such as 'the brown cow', or after the word, such as 'the cow was brown'

 

adverb

a word modifying a verb, adjective, adverb, phrase or preposition, such as 'he danced horribly.'

 

air

sometimes refers to the unused white space on a page

 

All Rights

a legal term meaning all publication rights worldwide in all formats

 

allegory

a figurative story used to convey moral or ethical lessons

 

alley

space between columns on a page

 

alliteration

a series of words beginning with the same letter or sound, such as: 'Bob bounced both balls badly.'

 

ampersand

the & character usually used to mean 'and'

 

anagram

a word or phrase formed by transposing the order of letters in another word or phrase, such as ' dormitory' and 'dirty room'.

 

analogy

comparing similar qualities of two items that are otherwise dissimilar in order to show that the items may be alike in other ways

 

anaphora

repetition of a similar phrase at the beginning of successive sentences for dramatic effect--'we cannot dedicate--we cannot consecrate--we cannot hallow...'

 

anastrophe

reversal of the normal order of words in a sentence for effect, like Yoda saying 'Judge me by size, do you?'

 

angle brackets

a name for < and >, also used for the 'less than' and 'greater than' signs

 

Antagonist

the fictional character or condition opposed to the hero or heroine (protagonist) of a story

 

antecedent

word or phrase that is referred to by a pronoun, such as 'Kelsey said she did well on the test.'

 

anthology

a collection of stories or poems assembled in one publication.

 

antonym

word with opposite meaning of another, such as good and evil

 

AP style

writing guidelines outlined in the Associated Press Stylebook, used mainly for magazines and newspapers

 

APA style

writing conventions outlined in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, used by psychologists and others

 

apostrophe

the ( ' ) symbol used to make possessive words and indicate missing letters

 

article

small words (a, an, the) that modify nouns

 

at sign

the @ character, often used in email addresses

 

autobiography

a life story written by the subject of the book

 

auxiliary verb

a verb that goes with another verb, like have or do

B---
 

back matter

back pages of a book containing appendixes, indexes and endnotes

 

backlist

publisher's list of books published in prior years that are still in print

 

backslash

the ' character.

 

baseline

the imaginary line that characters rest on; descenders extend below this line.

 

bastard title

optional first page of a book containing only the book title

 

bibliography

list of references used or cited in writing the book or article, usually printed in the back of the book

 

biography

a life story of someone written by someone else

 

blank verse

unrhymed poetry

 

bleed

extending art or text beyond the edge of the page beyond the trimmed edge

 

blind folio

page number that does not appear

 

block quote

a quotation that is set off from the main text (usually indented) and not surrounded by quote marks

 

bluelines

final proofs of the book or magazine that offer the last chance to make changes

 

body type

text type used for the main body of text

 

boilerplate

standard text that is used in multiple documents with little or no changes, or as a template

 

bold

boldface

 

braces

the { and } characters

 

brackets

the [ and ] characters.

 

bubble

the circle that surrounds editor's text on a page to highlight the material

 

bullet

a round dot used to mark items in list--also refers to other ornamental symbols used for the same purpose

 

bulleted list

a vertical list with a bullet at the start of each item

 

byline

line at the story of news or magazine articles that gives the writer's name

C---
 

callout

note on a printed copy to indicate where something needs to be added or changed

 

cap height

height of a capital letter from baseline to letter top

 

caps

capital letters

 

caption

text accompanying illustrations or photographs

 

cardinal number

a simple number used for counting, like 1, 5, or 431 (compare to ordinal number)

 

caret

the small symbol ^ used to indicate where to place text

 

CBE style

writing guidelines recommended by the Council of Biology Editors in Scientific Style and Format, mainly for scientific writing

 

character

a letter, number, or symbol.

 

Chicago style

writing guidelines contained in the 'The Chicago Manual of Style', one of the more commonly referenced set of guidelines

 

citation

a reference to the source of information or quotation

 

clause

a complete phrase containing both subject and verb that is part of a compound sentence

 

cliché

a overused and trite expression that conveys a popular thought, such as 'kill two birds with one stone'.

 

close paren

the ) character when used to finish enclosing a phrase

 

CMYK

a color process that uses four colors --  Cyan, Magenta, Yellow and Key (black)

 

collective noun

noun used to refer to a group of people or objects--may be singular or plural, such as 'a pod of whales'

 

colon

the : symbol used to mark a break in a sentence similar to a period

 

column inch

a newspaper or magazine measurement--one inch of text in one column

 

column rule

thin line between columns to make them easier to read

 

comma

the , symbol used to mark separation inside a sentence or between items in a list

 

comparison read

a process of comparing two copies to ensure they are the same

 

complex sentence

a sentence containing an independent clause and one or more dependent clauses

 

compound sentence

a sentence containing two or more clauses separated by the words and, but, or or

 

compound word

a word formed by combining two words together, with or without a hyphen

 

condensed

a typeface variant where the normal characters are compressed in the horizontal direction only

 

conjunction

a word used to join words and clauses together, including 'and, but, or, nor, for, so, yet'

 

consonant

a letter with a hard sound--all letters that are not vowels

 

contraction

a word formed by combining two words and omitting some letters which are replaced with an apostrophe, such as 'don't'.

 

copyediting

an editing process that checks for proper grammar, spelling and usage, as well as sometimes checking for style, continuity and accuracy

 

copyfitting

ensuring that a block of text will fit in the space allocated

 

copyright

legal protection for any works of creation

 

correlative conjunction

a conjunction pair, such as 'either/or', 'neither/nor' or 'both/and'

 

corrigendum

an error found after printing which must be corrected on an errata sheet

 

crop marks

thin marks or crosses placed outside standard text area to allow for pages to be aligned when printing

 

cross-reference

a reference to another section or page in the same document--also called x-ref

 

curly quotes

special quotation marks that are slanted towards the quote; also called smart quotes

 

CV

abbreviation for Curriculum vitae - a resume of one's experience

D---
 

dagger

the character often used for footnotes

 

dead copy

original manuscript used to compare against a more recent copy

 

dead copy

a copy of a work that has already been proofread with changes being copied to a new copy

 

descender

lower part of letters (g,j,p,q,y) that extends below the baseline

 

dingbat

a special character, usually found in its own computer font, that is used for embellishment of the text, such as a smiley face or special bullet

 

direct object

a word or phrase that follows a transitive verb or phrase, such as 'ball' in 'he threw the ball'

 

display type

larger, bolder type used for headings and subheadings

 

display type

large type used for titles and headings, usually a sans serif or special font

 

double dagger

the ‡ character often used for footnotes

 

double entendre

an expression capable of being interpreted in two ways, one of which is usually sexual

 

double negative

a phrase normally constructed of a negative verb with another negative word, such as 'I didn't see no one'

E---
 

ellipsis

a series of three periods in a row (...) used to indicate omitted text or a pause (plural is ellipses)

 

em dash

a wide dash '—' the width of a capital M

 

em space

a space the width of a capital M

 

en dash

a dash the width of a capital N

 

en space

a space the width of a capital N

 

endnote

an explanatory note at the end of a chapter or book

 

euphemism

A phrase used in place of something disagreeable or upsetting (passed on instead of died).

 

euphemism

a pleasant word or phrase substituted for a more offensive one, such as 'he passed away' instead of 'he died'

 

exclamation point

the ! mark normally used at the end of sentences for emphasis or surprise

 

expanded

a typeface variant where the normal characters are stretched in the horizontal direction only

 

E-zine

an online or e-mailed newsletter or magazine

F---
 

fair use

allowed copying of short portions of copyrighted material for educational or review purpose

 

figure of speech

an expression used to impart a meaning that is not necessarily contained in the expression, such as 'I am dying of thirst'

 

flush left/right

text set flush to the left or right margin

 

folio

the page number on a page; a blind folio has no page number but is counted in the page count

 

font

a set of characters of one typeface and style (like bold or italic)

 

footer

the text placed at the bottom of each page, such as the book title

 

foreword

introductory statement in the front of the book written by someone other than the author

 

front matter

printed material at the start of a book including the title page, table of contents and dedication

 

frontpiece

page in the front matter facing the title page, usually containing an illustration and often on different stock

 

full caps

words in all capital letters.

G---
 

galley

first printed proof of a document

 

genre

fiction category, such as history or mystery

 

gerund

a form of verb acting as a noun and ending in 'ing', like acting

 

gerund

a present participle of a verb ending in -ing which can be used as a noun or be part of a phrase used as a noun, such as 'I like eating'

 

ghostwriter

a writer paid to write a book for another person; normally not acknowledged as the author

 

glossary

a list of words with definitions

 

GPO style

writing guidelines recommended by the United States Government Printing Office Style Manual, used for government printing

 

Greek text

illegible text used as filler when designing layouts

 

gutter

inner margins of facing pages of a book

H---
 

haiku

a poem with three-lines and seventeen syllables

 

half title

page following the title page that contains just the main title--no subtitle and no author name

 

halftone

a photo or art converted to small dots to allow for clearer printing

 

hanging indent

text with a flush left first line, and indented following lines

 

hard copy

a printed version of a document

 

head

the chapter or section title

 

headnote

a word of phrase that follows a chapter or section title before the main text

 

helping verb

a verb that can help change the tense of the main verb, such as 'can, should, have, shall, will'

 

historical fiction

fiction that is set in the past, normally attempting to recreate the spirit and mood of the era

 

homographs

words spelled the same but pronounced differently or have different meanings

 

homonyms

words spelled and pronounced the same but with different meanings

 

house style

editorial style preferred by specific publisher

 

Hyperbole

extravagant and deliberate exaggeration

 

hyphen

a punctuation mark '-' use to make compound words or split words at the end of a line

I---
 

idiom

a phrase peculiar to an area of the country or group of people, or one that can not be understood by analyzing the words, such as 'saved by the bell'

 

imperative

a word used as a command or request, such as 'Shut the door'

 

imprint

a branding name used by a publisher on books they release; one publisher may have multiple imprints

 

indefinite pronoun

a pronoun that refers to one or more unspecified people, objects or places, such as anything or nobody

 

indent

space at the beginning of the line

 

independent clause

a group of words that contains a subject, verb and object (if required) and represents a complete thought and can stand alone as a sentence

 

index

an alphabetized list of references to the body of the text including the page number, normally found in the back matter of the book

 

indirect object

an object preceding the direct object that tells to whom or for whom the verb is acting, such as 'me' in the phrase 'he sold me the book'

 

initial caps

words in which the first letter is capitalized

 

initial caps

use of a capital letter to start each word

 

interjection

a word added to a sentence to convey a sense of emotion, often followed by an exclamation point, such as 'Wow!'

 

interrogative pronoun

a pronoun used to ask a question--what, which, who, whom and whose

 

intransitive verb

a verb that does not need a direct object, such as 'he fainted from the heat'

 

ISBN

unique number assigned to each book by the publisher identifying the book for inventory and ordering, usually in a format similar to ISBN 0-221-03232-1. The format has recently been lengthened to a 13-digit number.    

J---
 

justified

lines that are flush right and left. The word and character spacing must be changed to make both sides flush.

K---
 

kerning

space between adjoining letters that is often adjusted based on the actual pair of letters; such as placing an 'A' and 'V' closer together than their normal character spacing would dictate

L---
 

landscape

a page that is positioned horizontally with the long edge at the top

 

leading

the space between lines of text, normally measured in points, which can be smaller or larger than the font size (rhymes with bedding)

 

legend

a caption that explains the contents of a chart or map

 

letterspacing

space that is added or removed between letters to change the appearance or make words and lines fit on the page

 

ligature

special characters formed by combining two or more letters, such as æ

 

linespacing

(see leading)

 

linking verb

a verb or expression that links a subject with its predicate, such as 'the book might be his'

 

lowercase

a letter shown in its smaller format, like 'b', compared to its uppercase form, 'B'

M---
 

mark up

to place editing marks on a copy of a manuscript

 

measure

length of a line to typeset, in picas (6/inch)

 

metaphor

a phrase comparing two different things without the use of 'like' or 'as' (which would make it a simile), such as 'the winds of change'

 

meter

the pattern of rhythm in poems

 

mixed metaphor

a metaphor incorrectly formed with words from two different metaphors, such as 'burn that bridge when you come to it'

 

MLA style

writing conventions outlined by the Modern Language Association in the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing, normally used in schools

 

modifier

a word used to further restrict the meaning of another word, such as 'the flashing light'

 

MS

abbreviation for manuscript

N---
 

neologism

a new word or expression

 

nonrestrictive clause

a clause not necessary to the meaning of the sentence, usually set off by a comma, such as 'He sold the car, which happened to be blue, to the doctor.'

 

novella

a short work of fiction

 

numbered list

a vertical list with numbers in front of each line

 

Nut Graf

in journalism, one or more paragraphs that contain the news value of the story

O---
 

object

the noun, pronoun or phrase that the verb acts upon, such as the word 'ball' in 'he threw the ball'

 

on acceptance

payment received only when the editor accepts the finished manuscript

 

on publication

payment received when the document is published

 

on spec

a submission accepted without an obligation to publish it

 

onomatopoeia

use of words whose pronunciation sounds like their meaning, such as hiss or buzz

 

ordinal number

a number format used to indicate sequence, like 1st or 3rd (compare to cardinal number)

 

orphan

first line of a new paragraph that occurs by itself at the bottom of a page or column--differentiate from 'widow' by remembering the phrase: 'orphans have a future but no past, while widows have a past but no future'

 

oxymoron

a phrase consisting of words with contradictory meanings, such as 'military intelligence'

P---
 

palindrome

a phrase or word that reads the same forwards or backwards, such as 'A man, a plan, a canal: Panama'

 

paragraph

a group of one or more sentences that normally comprises a common idea and begins on a new line, normally indented

 

participle

a verb form that can be used as adjective, usually ending in -ing or -ed, such as 'the rising tide'

 

parts of speech

verb, noun, pronoun, adjective, adverb, preposition, conjunction, and interjection.

 

passive voice

a sentence form where the subject is being acted upon (compare to active voice)

 

passive voice

a phrase where the subject is normally not referenced but instead the focus is on the object of the sentence, such as 'the book was returned'

 

PE

printer's error made by typesetter or printer

 

period

the '.' mark that is used to mark the end of sentences or letters in an abbreviation

 

personification

attribution of human traits to an object or non-human object

 

pica

a measure for typesetting; 6 picas to an inch, or 12 points to a pica

 

plagiarism

to reproduce another's work and claim it as your own without crediting the source

 

plate

a full page illustration normally printed on a different weight or color of paper

 

plot

the main story line of a book or story

 

plural

word forms that indicate more than one, usually formed by adding -s or -es to the end of the word

 

POD

Abbreviation for print-on-demand

 

point

used to measure type size; 72 points to an inch

 

point of view

the perspective of a story, such as first person

 

portrait

a page that is positioned vertically with the short edge at the top

 

possessive

a noun or pronoun form that is used to show ownership, normally made by adding 's to the word, such as 'Kelsey's book'

 

predicate

part of the sentence, excluding the subject, that expresses something about the subject, such as 'He fell to the floor'

 

preface

introductory statement in the front of the book written by the author

 

prefix

characters preceding a word that may alter its meaning, such as 'anti' or 'pro'

 

preposition

a word that relates a noun or pronoun to another word in the sentence, such as 'about, from, to, near, around'

 

pronoun

a word used as a replacement for something else, such as 'I, we, they, mine, its, whoever, everyone'

 

proofreading

close examination of text to find and correct mistakes in format, usage and spelling; usually the final step of the entire editing process

 

proper noun

a noun that is the name of a specific person or place, like John, Naples or Virginia

 

prose

normal free-form language, as opposed to poetry or verse; literature is normally written in prose

 

public domain

any work that is not protected by a copyright or trademark

Q---
 

query

a question to the author from the editor or proofreader

 

question mark

the ( ? ) mark

 

quotation

a verbatim reference to words from another source, normally attributed to the source and surrounded with quotation marks

R---
 

ragged right

text that is aligned on the left but not on the right

 

redline

to mark up a copy of a manuscript with changes and additions

 

restrictive clause

a subordinate clause essential to the meaning of the sentence and which does not need to be preceded by a comma, such as 'the man with the moustache stepped forward'

 

roman

normal typestyle that is neither bold nor italic

 

rough draft

the initial version of a new work

 

royalty

the percentage of book sales paid to the author by the publisher

 

rule

a thin vertical or horizontal line on a page.

 

running head

a title that is repeated at the top of every page

 

run-on sentence

a sentence containing two or more independent clauses that are improperly joined together, or that is just too long

S---
 

sans-serif

character sets that do not contain serifs or small lines on the ends of strokes, like Arial

 

semicolon

the ( ; ) mark used to separate clauses in places where a comma is not sufficient

 

sentence fragment

a sentence that is missing the required parts (noun and verb) or is incomplete is some way

 

serial comma

the comma that is used in a list before the word 'and', such as the 'one, two, and three'

 

serif

a font with small lines crossing the ends of strokes, like Times New Roman

 

sic

used to identify incorrect spelling of a word that has been approved or was used that way in the original source

 

sidebar

information placed in a box next to the main article to emphasize points or add additional information

 

simile

comparing two things using the word 'like' or 'as', such as 'Ali stung like a bee'

 

slash

the ( / ) character

 

small caps

a style where lower case letters are replaced with capital letters equal to x-height

 

sonnet

a special form of a poem containing 14 lines in a special structure

 

spine

bound edge of a book or magazine that normally has printing

 

split infinitive

a verb form where an adverb or phrase comes between the 'to' and the verb, such as 'She hoped to quickly leave'

 

stet

proofreading mark indicating that editing marks should be ignored and text displayed as the original--'let it stand'

 

style sheet

the form used by the writer and editors to track any special grammar and word usage in the manuscript, as well as special instructions such as copyrights required

 

subhead

a title used in the body of the text for a section or paragraph heading

 

subjunctive

verb form used to indicate possibility of an event, or as viewed emotionally

 

subordinating conjunction

a conjunction such as 'although, because, since, while' that precedes a subordinate clause

 

subscript

a character, normally smaller than normal, placed on a baseline below normal baseline

 

suffix

a word ending that may alter the meaning of the word, or change forms, like from an adjective to an adverb, such as adding 'ly' to bad to change it to 'badly'

 

superscript

a character, normally smaller than normal, placed on a baseline above the normal baseline

 

synonyms

words that have the same meaning, such as big and large

 

synopsis

a short description of a work, often used in a review or proposal

T---
 

tautology

needless repeating of a word or idea, such as 'final result'

 

thesaurus

reference book or electronic source of word synonyms and antonyms

 

topic sentence

beginning sentence of a paragraph that expresses the main idea of the paragraph

 

trade books

books intended for the general public, as opposed to books for students or professionals

 

trade journals

magazines and journals made for a specific industry

 

transitive verb

a verb that needs a direct object, such as 'He threw the ball,' as opposed to an intransitive verb

 

trim size

final dimensions of a book after pages have been cut to size

 

typeface

overall type design, like Times New Roman, or Arial

 

typo

abbreviation for typographical error

U---
 

UC

uppercase letters, as opposed to lowercase (LC)

 

unnumbered list

a vertical list that has neither bullets nor numbers in front of each line

 

uppercase

capital letters

V---
 

vanity publishing

where the author pays to have their work published

 

verb

a word in a sentence indication action; an essential part of sentences

 

vowels

five of the letters in the alphabet - a, e, i, o, u and sometimes y

W---
 

weight

boldness of a font

 

white space

space on a page with no image or text

 

widow

last line of a paragraph that appears by itself at the top of the next page or column--differentiate from 'orphan' by remembering the phrase: 'orphans have a future but no past, while widows have a past but no future'

 

word break

breaking a word at the end of a line with a hyphen and continuing it on the next line

 

word count

number of words in a document

 

word spacing

amount of space between words. If the lines are justified (flush left and right), the spacing will vary between words to make the edges flush.

 

work for hire

writing done for wages without retaining rights to the finished product

 

wraparound

text that wraps around an embedded graphic or photograph

 

writer’s block

an inability of a writer to set words on paper, often lasting a long time

X---
 

x-height

height of lowercase letters, not including the ascenders and descenders (like a, c or x)

 

x-ref

cross reference inside a document or book

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